Pellet fuel is an alternative to renewable energy sources made from recycled biomass such as wood waste (wood chips and sawdust), wastepaper, agricultural residues (straws, corn stalks, and other residual crops). Raw biomass is usually collected for recycling and pre-treated before being manufactured into pellet fuels to increase its burn efficiency. Pellet fuel is made uniformly in terms of size, shape, moisture, density, and energy content so it is easy to transport, store and feed into heat and power generation units.
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Pellet fuel production process
The production of pellet fuel starts with collecting biomass feedstock from forestry and logging leftovers, agricultural waste and sawdust. Then, the piles of biomass feedstock are transported to a fiber cleaning system before going through a drying process. Afterward, it is processed by a hammermill and pellet mill where biomass is grounded and pelletized. Fuel pellets still need to be cooled and dried after extrusion to be packed and stored properly.
Economical pellets from torrefied wood
A torrefied wood pellet has a higher energy density (almost half) than its regular wood pellet cousin. Black pellets are used to replace fossil coal in power generators. Biomass like straw, hemp, and many more are also suitable for torrified pellets, opening up a plethora of options.
In essence, producing torrefied pellets is much the same as producing regular biomass pellets. In the case of wood, it goes through the drying and milling process to get to a moisture percentage below 15 percent. But then, to produce torrefied pellets, the biomass is heated to 300 degrees in an environment without oxygen, reducing the mass and increasing energy content.
Mobile biomass pelleting
Mobile pelleting for biomass makes it much easier to work around your waste biomass, instead of bringing the raw material to your plant. To be more flexible, a plant can be mounted on a platform trailer.
Machines for each process step are mounted on a single base, like for example a hammer mill, mixing and storage bin, screw feeder, flat die pellet mill, vibrating screen, water tank and the scraper conveyor or any additional parts. Once the raw material is fed into the hammer mill feeder, you can wait for the pellets to come out of the scraper conveyor at the location of your choice, as is shown on the video below.
Make alternative pellet fuel from recycled waste
To fully harness the potential of bioenergy, fuel pellet producers are seeking to diversify feedstock and utilize non-woody biomass (e.g. dried green forage) and recycled waste. For example, agricultural leftovers, industrial food byproducts, and municipal solid waste can be integrated into the production of bio-pellets. However, it is important to make sure that organic wastes are pre-treated, cleaned, and have contaminants removed before being processed.